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Christmas in Kazakhstan: Unique Customs and Traditions

Embrace the Festivities with a Mix of Kazakh and Russian Orthodox Customs

Kazakhstan, the world’s ninth-largest country, is located in Central Asia, sharing borders with Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. With a rich cultural history influenced by various traditions, including Turkic, Mongolian, and Russian, it’s no surprise that Christmas in Kazakhstan is a unique experience.


The Influence of Russian Orthodox Christianity

While the majority of the population in Kazakhstan practice Islam, there’s a significant Russian Orthodox Christian community. As a result, Kazakhstan’s Christmas celebrations incorporate a blend of Orthodox Christian and local Kazakh traditions.


The Kazakh Christmas Season

Preparations for Christmas

Decoration of Homes and Streets

As Christmas approaches, Kazakhstan’s cities and towns transform into festive wonderlands. Colorful lights and ornaments adorn homes, streets, and public spaces, creating a warm and inviting atmosphere. Fir trees, symbolic of the holiday, are decorated with bright baubles and twinkling lights.


Christmas Shopping and Gifts

Christmas markets and shopping centers bustle with activity as people search for the perfect gifts for their loved ones. Handmade crafts, warm clothing, and traditional sweets are popular choices for presents.


Christmas Eve Customs

Family Gatherings and Meals

Christmas Eve is a time for family gatherings, with loved ones coming together to share a festive meal. Traditional Kazakh and Russian dishes grace the table, creating a delicious spread that highlights the diverse culinary influences in the country.


Midnight Church Services

For the Russian Orthodox community, Christmas Eve is a solemn occasion marked by attending midnight church services. The faithful gather in beautifully decorated churches to participate in prayers, hymns, and the celebration of the Divine Liturgy.


Kazakh Christmas Traditions

Christmas Foods

Beshbarmak and Manti

Beshbarmak, a traditional Kazakh dish consisting of boiled meat and pasta, is often served during Christmas celebrations. Manti, another popular dish, are dumplings filled with meat, onions, and spices, enjoyed by both Kazakhs and Russians alike.


Festive Desserts and Drinks

No Kazakh Christmas feast is complete without an array of sweet treats. Popular desserts include baursak, deep-fried dough balls dusted with powdered sugar, and chak-chak, a dessert made from honey-coated fried dough. For drinks, Kazakhstan offers a unique Christmas beverage called kumis, a mildly alcoholic drink made from fermented mare’s milk.


Gift-Giving and Santa Claus

Ayaz Ata: The Kazakh Santa Claus

In Kazakhstan, the figure of Ayaz Ata, a benevolent winter spirit, plays a similar role to that of Santa Claus in Western cultures. Dressed in warm fur clothing, Ayaz Ata visits children to bring them gifts and spread holiday cheer. Some families also celebrate with the Russian version of Santa Claus, Ded Moroz, accompanied by his granddaughter Snegurochka.


Gift Exchanges Among Family and Friends

Gift-giving is an essential part of the Christmas celebrations in Kazakhstan. Friends and families exchange presents, creating a sense of warmth and connection during the festive season.


Christmas Activities and Entertainment

Christmas Concerts and Performances

During the Christmas season, numerous concerts, ballets, and theatrical performances take place throughout the country. These events often feature a mix of traditional Kazakh and Russian music, providing a vibrant and unique cultural experience.


Ice Skating and Winter Sports

Winter sports are popular in Kazakhstan, and Christmas is the perfect time to enjoy them. Many families take advantage of the snowy weather to go ice skating, skiing, or snowboarding, making the most of the festive season.



Christmas in Kazakhstan is a unique and captivating experience. With a blend of Russian Orthodox and Kazakh traditions, the country offers a rich and diverse celebration that’s sure to create lasting memories. From family gatherings to winter sports, there’s something for everyone to enjoy during the Christmas season in Kazakhstan.


Frequently Asked Questions

  1. What is the main religion in Kazakhstan?

    The majority of the population in Kazakhstan practice Islam. However, there is a significant Russian Orthodox Christian community as well.

  2. When is Christmas celebrated in Kazakhstan?

    Christmas is celebrated on December 25th in Kazakhstan for those following the Gregorian calendar. Russian Orthodox Christians, who follow the Julian calendar, celebrate Christmas on January 7th.

  3. What are some traditional Kazakh Christmas foods?

    Some traditional Kazakh Christmas foods include beshbarmak, manti, baursak, chak-chak, and kumis.

  4. Who is Ayaz Ata?

    Ayaz Ata is a benevolent winter spirit in Kazakh mythology who plays a similar role to Santa Claus. He brings gifts to children and spreads holiday cheer.

  5. What are some popular Christmas activities in Kazakhstan?

    Popular Christmas activities in Kazakhstan include attending concerts and performances, ice skating, skiing, and snowboarding.

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