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Pepernoot: A Classic Dutch Christmas Treat

Dive into the History, Recipe, and Traditions of this Classic Dutch Holiday Treat

Pepernoot, also known as “pepernoten,” is a traditional Dutch Christmas recipe that has been enjoyed for centuries during the festive season. These small, bite-sized spiced cookies are typically served during Sinterklaas, a Dutch holiday celebrated on December 5th, but their delightful taste and aroma make them a popular treat throughout the entire holiday season. In this article, we’ll explore the history of pepernoot, share a simple recipe, and discuss the role these cookies play in Dutch Christmas traditions.


The History of Pepernoot

The origin of pepernoot can be traced back to the 16th century, when the Dutch East India Company began importing exotic spices from Asia, such as cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg. These spices were then used to create “speculaas,” a type of spiced biscuit that later evolved into the pepernoot we know today.

The name “pepernoot” translates to “pepper nut” in English, reflecting the traditional inclusion of white pepper in the recipe and the cookie’s small, nut-like shape. Over time, the recipe for pepernoot has been adapted and passed down through generations, resulting in variations that may include different spices or the addition of other ingredients such as almonds or candied fruit.


Pepernoot Recipe

Here’s a simple pepernoot recipe that you can make at home to enjoy a taste of this classic Dutch Christmas treat:



  • 250g (2 cups) all-purpose flour
  • 125g (1/2 cup) unsalted butter, softened
  • 150g (3/4 cup) brown sugar
  • 2 tablespoons milk
  • 2 teaspoons baking powder
  • 1 tablespoon ground cinnamon
  • 1 teaspoon ground cloves
  • 1 teaspoon ground nutmeg
  • 1/2 teaspoon ground white pepper (optional)
  • 1/4 teaspoon ground aniseed (optional)
  • 1/4 teaspoon ground cardamom (optional)
  • Pinch of salt



  1. Preheat your oven to 160°C (320°F) and line a baking sheet with parchment paper.
  2. In a large bowl, combine the flour, baking powder, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, white pepper, aniseed, cardamom, and salt. Mix well to ensure the spices are evenly distributed.
  3. In a separate bowl, cream together the softened butter and brown sugar until light and fluffy. Add the milk and mix until combined.
  4. Gradually add the dry ingredients to the butter mixture, stirring until a soft dough forms. If the dough is too crumbly, add a little more milk until it comes together.
  5. Roll the dough into small balls, approximately 1-2 cm (0.5-1 inch) in diameter. Place them on the prepared baking sheet, leaving some space between each cookie to allow for expansion during baking.
  6. Bake the pepernoot cookies in the preheated oven for 15-20 minutes, or until they are golden brown and slightly firm to the touch. Be sure to keep an eye on them, as they can burn quickly due to the high sugar content.
  7. Remove the cookies from the oven and allow them to cool on the baking sheet for a few minutes before transferring them to a wire rack to cool completely. Once cooled, store the pepernoot in an airtight container to maintain freshness.

The Role of Pepernoot in Dutch Christmas Traditions

Pepernoot is closely associated with the celebration of Sinterklaas, the Dutch equivalent of Santa Claus. Sinterklaas arrives in the Netherlands in mid-November and is accompanied by his helpers, known as “Zwarte Pieten” or “Pieten.” Leading up to Sinterklaasavond on December 5th, children put out their shoes at night and hope to find them filled with pepernoot and other treats from Sinterklaas.

The Pieten are known for playfully throwing handfuls of pepernoot into the crowds during Sinterklaas parades and other festive events. The scattering of pepernoot symbolizes the spreading of happiness and good fortune.


Pepernoot is a delicious and beloved Dutch Christmas treat that has been enjoyed for centuries. With their unique blend of warm spices and delightful texture, these cookies are the perfect addition to your holiday baking repertoire. Whether you’re celebrating Sinterklaas or simply looking for a festive treat to share with friends and family, pepernoot is sure to become a cherished part of your holiday traditions.



1. What is the difference between pepernoot and kruidnoten?

Although the terms “pepernoot” and “kruidnoten” are often used interchangeably, they are technically two different cookies. Pepernoot is softer and chewier, while kruidnoten are harder and more similar to gingerbread.


2. How long can pepernoot be stored?

Pepernoot cookies can be stored in an airtight container for up to 2 weeks, though they are best enjoyed within a few days of baking.


3. Can I make pepernoot without white pepper?

Yes, you can omit the white pepper from the recipe if you prefer a milder flavor or if you’re sensitive to pepper. The cookies will still be delicious with the remaining spices.


4. Is pepernoot vegan?

Traditional pepernoot recipes contain butter, making them non-vegan. However, you can substitute the butter with a plant-based alternative to make vegan pepernoot cookies.

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